University of Phoenix - LDR 531 > Latest Final Exam 2019/20; Already Graded A
LDR 531 Final Exam Answers
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1 Which of the following approaches to leadership studies how contextual factors affect leadership processes?
• The situational approach
• The power-influence approach
• The behavior approach
• The trait approach
2 __________ refers to the degree to which an organization’s management focuses on results rather than on the processes used to achieve them.
• People orientation
• Outcome orientation
3 The __________ explains how a leader’s followers perceive their ability to influence important events.
• emotional contagion theory
• empowerment theory
• leader substitutes theory
• attribution theory
4 Chloe works as an editor in a publishing firm. Her workload starts increasing when the firm receives a couple of projects with tight deadlines. Despite her persistent requests, the firm’s management refuses to give her more time or hire new editors. Disillusioned with the firm’s conduct, she decides to resign from the firm and search for a new job. In this scenario, Chloe displays a(n) __________ response to job dissatisfaction.
5 Which of the following types of organizational change is organic in nature and is often guided by individuals who do not always occupy positions of significant authority in an organization?
• Evolved change
• Planned change
• Driven change
• Programmed change
6 An advantage of departmentalizing jobs by function is that:
• it increases accountability of performance.
• it helps to serve customers who are scattered across an extensive geographic area.
• it increases efficiency by grouping like specialists from the same field together.
• it aids in addressing the common set of problems each kind of customer experiences.
7 Neil, a production manager in a manufacturing plant, is notorious for being indifferent to his subordinates. When Liz, one of his subordinates, reports to him about the safety risks arising from a faulty machine, he completely ignores her concerns. Leslie, another subordinate, who raises a personal issue, faces the same treatment. Over the course of time, Neil’s attitude disappoints the laborers and the rate of attrition increases drastically. In this scenario, Neil engages in __________.
• transformational leadership
• laissez-faire leadership
• servant leadership
• authentic leadership
8 Dean and Jill are the interview candidates considered for the post of senior accountant at Tyron Associates, an accounting firm. During the final round of interview, both of them inform Tyron’s management about their inability to work full time for the firm because of family obligations. Considering their skills and limitations, Tyron’s management offers them an alternate work arrangement. It gives Dean and Jill the option to work two and a half days every week and jointly complete 40 working hours. Each of them would receive half the salary the firm would usually pay an accountant who works for 40 hours a week. Dean and Jill accept the offer as the arrangement suits their requirements and expectations. Which of the following alternative job arrangements does Tyron’s management offer in this scenario?
• Piece-rate pay
• Job sharing
9 Which of the following statements is true of power?
• For power to be exercised, it requires that the goals of exercisers of power and those on whom power is exercised are compatible.
• The influence of power extends upwards, downwards, and laterally with respect to an exerciser.
• Researches on power usually focus on the style in which power is exercised and not on the tactics employed in the process.
• It is impossible for groups to exercise power on individuals or other groups.
10 In the context of communication, the term channel refers to:
• the barrier that adversely affects the clarity of a message.
• the medium through which a message travels.
• the check on how successfully a message has been transmitted.
• the actual physical product of a sender’s encoding.
11 According to the Big Five Personality Model, __________ is a personality dimension describing someone who is gregarious, assertive, and sociable.
• emotional stability
• openness to experience
12 Work groups are different from work teams in that they:
• generate positive energy through coordinated efforts.
• have members who are individually and mutually accountable.
• interact primarily to convey information.
• have members who have complementary skills.
13 A limitation of approaching leadership as a group process is that:
• it fails to address the psychological processes that facilitate leaders’ influence on team members.
• it overlooks leaders’ role in influencing individuals and processes outside their teams.
• it does not give adequate importance to leaders’ efforts to enhance team performance.
• it rarely explains how shared leadership affects team morale and activities.
14 Which of the following purposes of communication is served when employees communicate any work-related grievance to their superiors?
• Emotional expression
15 Pamela owns and operates a retail store that sells home appliances. She has four salespersons directly reporting to her, and she maintains a personal relationship with each of them. She provides job tips to them by narrating her experiences as a salesperson. She also supports them emotionally when they go through difficulties in personal life. Her employees feel connected to her and try their best to perform well. In this scenario, Pamela engages in __________.
• individualized consideration
• idealized influence
• intellectual stimulation
• inspirational motivation
16 On the strategy dimension, __________ is the most abstract thing that can be changed in an organization.
17 __________ refers to the basis on which tasks in an organization are grouped together.
18 Amanda works in a manufacturing plant that produces packaged drinks. Her job task changes every six months. She works alternatively in the production wing and the packaging wing of the plant. This reduces her boredom and allows the plant’s management to utilize her service whenever there is a shortage of workers in any wing. Which of the following methods to redesign a job does the plant’s management use for Amanda in this scenario?
• Job rotation
• Job enrichment
19 The __________ identifies six personality traits and suggests that an employee’s satisfaction and the employee’s desire to leave a position are dependent on the fit between his or her personality type and the occupational environment.
• expectancy theory
• attribution theory
• personality–job fit theory
• personality–organization fit theory
20 Diva Fabric House, a store that sells designer clothes, plans to organize a fashion show to launch its latest collection of designer apparels. Diva’s management forms a team encompassing its purchase manager, public relation manager, finance manager, and facility manager to coordinate the necessary resources and to ensure the smooth execution of the fashion show. In this scenario, the team constituted by Diva’s management is an example of a __________.
• self-managed team
• cross-functional team
• problem-solving team
21 According to the Big Five Personality Model, a person who scores high on __________ is responsible, organized, dependable, and persistent.
• emotional stability
• openness to experience
22 Who among the following individuals is most likely to have a realistic personality type?
• Jim, a mechanic in a factory, whose routine task is to check the machines in the factory
• Rupert, a tourist guide, whose conversational skills help him develop a rapport with tourists
• Helen, a painter, who uses abstract themes in her paintings
• Yuri, a psychologist, who works with a social welfare organization
23 Which of the following statements is true of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator?
• It is limited in its capacity to provide career guidance.
• Its efficiency is strongly supported by an extensive body of research.
• It is an efficient tool to select suitable job candidates.
• It forces an individual into one personality category or another.
24 The management of Derot Pharmaceuticals embarks on an exercise to understand its employees’ perception about work processes and environment. It develops a questionnaire in which each employee is required to respond to questions on his or her specific department and to general questions on the organization. Through this questionnaire, Derot’s management intends to collect data on the performance of specific departments and the organization as a whole. It also plans to use this data to identify possible concerns and to solve them. Which of the following organizational development strategies does Derot’s management employ in this scenario?
• Process consultation
• Appreciative inquiry
• Team building
• Survey feedback
25 Josh is a project lead in a software firm. He believes that a leader should be a role model for his or her team. Hence, he sets an example by completing his job tasks punctually, being accountable for his actions, and fulfilling his duties as a team player. Josh’s subordinates admire his character and strive to match up to his standards. In this scenario, Josh engages in __________.
• individualized consideration
• intellectual stimulation
• idealized influence
• inspirational motivation
26 According to Holland’s personality–job fit theory, an individual with a(n) __________ personality type is most likely to prefer physically demanding activities that need skill, strength, and coordination.
27 Fred is the customer relations manager in a retail store. When Linda, one of the cashiers, misbehaves with a customer, Fred reprimands her and asks her to stay off duty for a day. In this scenario, Fred exercises __________.
• reward power
• coercive power
• referent power
• expert power
28 A restaurant’s management conducts a survey among its chefs to understand what they like most about the restaurant and its work culture. Most of the chefs who take part in the survey point to the management’s uncompromising quality standards and its willingness to invest time and money to ensure all-round quality. In this scenario, the chefs evaluate the restaurant’s work culture in terms of its __________.
• outcome orientation
• people orientation
29 The management of a manufacturing firm notices that its employees are increasingly showing signs of being demotivated and dissatisfied with their jobs. It hires a consultant to suggest possible measures to improve employee satisfaction. The consultant meets each employee personally and inquires about his or her perception about the work environment. During the meetings, most of the firm’s employees reveal that they are unable to maintain a healthy work–life balance because of the fixed work timings that the company follows and suggests that a flexible work schedule would be of great help. The management, after due consultation, implements a flextime policy and with time, employee satisfaction improves. Which of the following approaches to managing organizational change does this scenario illustrate?
• Kotter’s eight-step plan
• Organizational development
• Lewin’s three-step model
• Action research
30 __________ refers to the degree to which an individual identifies with a job.
• Job satisfaction
• Psychological empowerment
• Organizational commitment
• Job involvement
University of Phoenix - LDR 531- Latest Exam - Already Graded A
1. Job dissatisfaction and antagonistic relationships with coworkers predict a variety of behaviors organizations find undesirable, including unionization attempts, substance abuse, undue socializing, and tardiness. These behaviors are indicators of a broader syndrome called
• Positivity offset.
• Employee withdrawal.
• Cognitive dissonance.
• Rotten apple syndrome.
2. Organizational momentum ________________.
• is not promoted by stability within the organization
• can benefit or inhibit an organization
• is always an advantage in seeking organizational change
• increases with the implementation of new programs
ldr 531 week 6 quiz
3. Some studies indicate the best approach for transformational change may have the chief executive officer create an atmosphere for change
• And establish a reward system.
• But carefully set limits for the program.
• But let others decide how to initiate change.
• And begin establishing a vision.
ldr 531 week 6 failure analysis/change strategy
4. Which of the following actions best represents Kelly’s high job involvement?
• Kelly wants to continue working for the organization because many of her college friends are working there.
• Kelly actively takes part in team activities and proactively takes up additional job responsibilities.
• Kelly always complains about her work to her colleagues.
• Kelly shares the organization’s vision of supporting renewable energy.
5. The concept that some leadership attributes will work in some situations but not in others can be described by the
• Contingency theory.
• Tactical theory.
• Leadership effectiveness theory.
• Behavioral theory.
6. You manage a department of four employees. You have identified that Joe has a high need for achievement. Mary has a high need for power, and Tim has a high need for affiliation. Sarah scored high on the need for power and low on the need for affiliation.
Which of these four employees is most suitable for handling your responsibilities when you are on vacation?
7. In order to make their firm a learning organization, managers should
• Increase the degree of departmentalization.
• Reinforce interdependence and reduce boundaries.
• Avoid the use of cross-functional teams.
• Penalize mistakes.
8. Which of the following statements is true with regard to the effectiveness of tactics?
• Individuals from collectivist cultures are typically more likely to use soft tactics that reflect personal power.
• The combination of a soft tactic with reasonable persuasion is more effective than a combination of two hard tactics.
• All tactics are equally effective with regard to upward influence. The combination of a soft tactic with reasonable persuasion is more effective than a combination of two hard tactics.
• Soft tactics are less effective than hard tactics when used individually.
9. Central to managing a successful organizational strategy implementation are/is
• Tracking progress.
• Formal models of implementation.
• Coalition management.
• Competitive teams.
10. Which of the following is the first step in the negotiation process?
• Preparation and planning
• Bargaining and problem solving
• Definition of ground rules
• Clarification and justification
11. ________ occurs when people within organizations use whatever influence they can to taint the facts to support their goals and interests.
• Illegitimate political behavior
• Legitimate political behavior
12. The ultimate source of an organization’s culture is
• Its top management.
• Its environment.
• The country in which the organization operates.
• Its founders.
13. Which of the following statements is most likely to be true about differences between men and women in relation to emotional reactions?
• Women express anger more frequently than men.
• Men experience emotions more intensely than women.
• Women tend to hold onto emotions longer than men.
• Men display positive emotions more frequently than women.
14. Which of the following is a desirable strategy for managers aiming to reduce the negative consequences of rumors?
• Refusing to comment on issues that appear to be controversial and unfair
• Encouraging employees to communicate their concerns and suggestions
• Creating a more informal communication environment at the workplace
• Initiating disciplinary action against the employee who started the rumor
15. Adoration of a charismatic leader by followers can lead to
• Limiting suggestions of fixes and improvements.
• A competitive work environment.
• Difficulty in developing a successor.
• Greater understanding of the company mission.
16. A leadership theory that describes leadership functions applicable to some situations but not others is called
17. Dortix is a manufacturing company. At the end of every quarter, the total production of each department is calculated, compared with the predetermined targets, and the rewards for each set of divisional employees is determined this way. Dortix uses a ________ plan to incentivize its employees.
18. The degree to which a turbulent environment impacts operations within an organization is known as
19. Determining if a strategy will be effective within its respective business environment and still be competitive could be determined by completing a(n) ________ test.
20. According to the job characteristics model, autonomy is defined as the degree to which
• A job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work.
• A job has an impact on the lives or work of other people.
• A job provides the worker freedom, independence, and discretion.
• A job generates direct and clear information about performance.
21. Which of the following represents the acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members?
22. During an annual review, Michel Godfrey made the following assertion: “When I look at myself and my performance, I see that what I have achieved is outstanding and something no one in the organization has the capacity to undertake. Surprisingly, it has not won me the admiration of my colleagues like it should have. I also believe that I do not just deserve a raise, but need one, since without me, let’s face it, the place would simply fall apart.” Which of the following personality traits best describes Michel’s personality?
23. Which of the following dimensions of the Big Five Model indicates a person’s ability to withstand stress?
• Emotional stability
• Openness to experience
24. The best leadership theories to describe and explain effective leadership in teams with interactive members are
• Group theories.
• Dyadic theories.
• Multi-level theories.
• Integrated theories.
25. Which of the following is true of the baby boomer generation?
• They are more questioning and entrepreneurial than the other generations.
• They lead lives shaped mainly by globalization.
• They give high importance to achievement and material success.
• They give the highest importance to flexibility and life options.
26. Low-context cultures primarily rely on ________ in communicating with others.
• formal titles
• status differences
• spoken and written words
• situational cues
27. Pragmatic leaders
• Appeal to emotions.
• Articulate a vision of confidence.
• Have expertise and commitment.
• Appeal to shared values.
28. ________ refers to an individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.
• Emotional contagion
• Affect intensity
29. Which of the following statements is true regarding a matrix structure?
• It avoids duplication of activities.
• It reduces ambiguity about who reports to whom.
• It cannot achieve economies of scale.
• It breaks the unity-of-command concept.
30. Which of the following steps can be taken by a manager to minimize groupthink?
• Asking the group members to first focus on the positives of an alternative rather than the negatives
• Preventing all team members from engaging in a critical evaluation of ideas at the beginning
• Seeking input from employees before the group leader presents his opinions
• Encouraging group leaders to develop a stronger sense of group identityking input from employees before the group leader presents his opinions